Structuralism - Ferdinand de Saussure


Standard theory

  • Phrase structure rules + lexicon -> deep structure
  • Deep structure --> surface structure through transformations
  • surface structure --> phonology

Government and binding theory

  • X' theory + lexicon -> D structure
  • D structure --(move α)--> S-structure --> PF,LF
  • Principles and parameters


  • No surface or deep structures
  • Lexical items combine through MERGE governed by constraints
  • Outputs : PF to articulation, LF to conceptual/intention system

  1. Syntactic Structures (1957). The Hague: Mouton. Reprint. Berlin and New York (1985).
  2. Chomsky (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  3. Chomsky (1965). Cartesian Linguistics. New York: Harper and Row. Reprint. Cartesian Linguistics. A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1986.
  4. Chomsky, Noam, and Morris Halle (1968). The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
  5. Chomsky (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures. Holland: Foris Publications. Reprint. 7th Edition. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993.
  6. Chomsky (1986). Barriers. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph Thirteen. Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press.
  7. Chomsky, Noam (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.