• Hauser, M. D., Chomsky, N., & Fitch, W. T. (2002). The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science, 298, 1569-1579.
  • Pinker & Jackendoff (2005). The Faculty of Language: What’s Special about it? Cognition 95, 201-236.


  • Narrow Language Faculty (NLF) vs. Broad Language Faculty (FLB)
  • FLB includes sensorimotor, conceptual, and grammatical components.
    • conceptual : e.g. spatial, causal, and social reasoning, theory of mind, intuitive physics. Some in humans but not in other animals.
  • NLF includes only recursion - distinguishes language both from other human capacities and from the capacities of animals.
    • Rejects Alvin Liberman's hypothesis that Speech is Special.