Mental states are states of the mind, such as :

  • Beliefs and desires : believing that it will rain, having a desire for dark chocolate .
  • Knowledge and thoughts : knowing that 1+1=2, thinking that 3>2.
  • Mental images : imagining the opening of the Moonlight Sonata, visualizing how to kick a ball.
  • Emotions and moods : hoping that one will pass the exam, fearing failure, feeling peaceful, being irritable, being relaxed.
  • Perceptions and sensations : seeing a cat, feeling pain, hearing voices, having hunger pangs, being thirsty and tired.

Most mental states are either intentional or conscious.