• Stickgold (2001) Sleep, learning, and Dreams: Off-line Memory Reprocessing. Science Vol. 294.
  • Hobson (2002) Dreaming - An Introduction to the Science of Sleep OUP.
  • The Scientific Study of Dreams, G. William Domhoff

REM sleep

  • It was thought that dreaming is restricted to REM sleep.
  • But dreams occur also during sleep onset and stage 2 non-REM sleep near morning.
  • REM plays a critical role in learning - consolidation of procedural but not declarative memory.