The term "logic" is often used in many different ways. It is sometimes understood broadly as the systematic study of the principles of good reasoning. As such logic is not very different from critical thinking. But sometimes "logic" is understood more narrowly as what we might call "deductive logic". Roughly speaking, deductive logic is mainly about the consistency of statements and beliefs, as well as the validity of arguments. These are the topics we shall investigate in the following modules.
Formal logic is the study of logic using special symbols and clearly-defined rules of reasoning. They are very useful in linguistics, philosophy, artificial intelligence and mathematics. The tools of formal logic can also help us formulate ideas and arguments more precisely. In our web site we introduce two of the most basic systems of formal logic.